Kontakt

Wyszkowska Fabryka Sprężyn "METALURGIA" Sp. z o.o.


Producent sprężyn od 1954 roku


ul. Lotników 2, Skuszew
07-201 Wyszków

NIP 762-177-70-88
Sąd Rejonowy dla m.st Warszawa
XIV Wydział Gospodarczy
KRS 0000131156
Kapitał Spółki 304.500,00zł

tel. +48 29 742-20-75
fax +48 29 742-20-75 w. 23
email: sprzedaz@wfs-metalurgia.com.pl


We hold an ISO 9001:2008 Quality Certificate

ISO9001:2008

Visit us on Facebook.

facebook

Springs Is What We Make
Polski    English   


Springs


A spring is a mechanical device that changes its shape under the influence of force and then recoils to the original shape when relieved. The spring stores the deforming energy and returns it while returning to the original shape. The extent and direction of elastic strain depends on force. Note that if the spring is overloaded, it will undergo plastic strain and will never return to its original shape.


Spring history


Very simple designs of springs have been used for centuries for energy storage. The bow is one of the oldest applications. More advanced springs came to life in the Bronze Age in the form of eyebrow pincers used in many cultures. About 1333 BC springing components were used in king Tutankhamen’s chariot as shock absorbers and anti-tipping safeguards. The Roman Empire invented leaf springs and installed them in the pilentum, a kind of four-wheeled carriage. In 1493, Leonardo da Vinci improved the performance of the pistol by furnishing the cock with a spring for one-handed operation. Then, around the 15th century, spiral springs were devised for use in clocks, scales and other mechanisms. The Industrial Revolution of the 18th century was another turning point in the history of springs: the onset of mass manufacture of springs made from steel alloys. About 1870, Joseph Bramah, a British fitter, built one of the first coiling machines (using a lathe). At the same time upholsterers applied springs to mattresses. In 1935, George Nissan devised the spring trampoline, the design of which remains pretty much unchanged much until today. The later evolution of springs consisted mostly of experimenting with new materials and finding new applications.


Types of springs


We distinguish a few types of springs depending on shape, functionality and application. The most commonplace designs are cylindrical or conical wire springs

        Tension springs

Tension springs These springs designed for stretching feature closed coils and differently shaped ends, most frequently German or English hooks.

Compression springs       

Compression springs These springs feature open coils (spring pitch) and, depending on application, different types of termination. Most general-purpose springs have ground butt ends.

        Torsion springs

Torsion springs These are designed so that the force applied to the outreaching end of the spring twists the coil (tightens the spiral).

Spiral springs        

Spiral springs Another popular type of springs are spiral components coiled in the form of spiral instead of cylinder or cone. One end of the spring forms the center of the spiral and the other one is positioned on the outer edge.

Materials


Materials used for the manufacture of spring should feature:
- High limit of elasticity
- High limit of plasticity
- High fatigue strength
The typical material for a spring is high-carbon spring steel. It is mostly heat-treated (patented) drawn wire or cold-rolled strips.

Chemical composition of spring wire acc. to PN-EN10270-1
C Si Mn P S Cu
[%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%]
0,55 - 0,85 0,10 - 0,30 0,50 - 1,00 max. 0,020 max. 0,025 max. 0,120


Strength of selected spring wire diameters acc. to PN-EN10270-1
Diameter Class SL Class SM Class DM Class SH Class DH
[mm] [Mpa] [MPa] [MPa] [MPa] [MPa]
1,0 1720 - 1970 1980 - 2220 1980 - 2220 2230 - 2470 2230 - 2470
1,5 1600 - 1840 1850 - 2080 1850 - 2080 2090 - 2310 2090 - 2310
2,0 1520 - 1750 1760 - 1970 1760 - 1970 1980 - 2200 1980 - 2200
2,5 1460 - 1680 1690 - 1890 1690 - 1890 1900 - 2110 1900 - 2110
3,0 1410 - 1620 1630 - 1830 1630 - 1830 1840 - 2040 1840 - 2040
4,0 1320 - 1520 1530 - 1730 1530 - 1730 1740 - 1930 1740 - 1930
5,0 1260 - 1450 1460 - 1650 1460 - 1650 1660 - 1840 1660 - 1840
6,0 1210 - 1390 1400 - 1580 1400 - 1580 1590 - 1770 1590 - 1770

CLASS SL:
Tension, compression and torsion springs, typically for small steady stresses.

CLASS SM:
Tension, compression and torsion springs for moderate steady stresses or, rarely, dynamic stresses.

CLASS SH:
Tension, compression and torsion springs for large steady stresses or small dynamic stresses.

CLASS DM:
Tension, compression and torsion springs for dynamic stresses and strongly distorted springing components.

CLASS DH:
Tension, compression and torsion springs for large steady stresses or moderate dynamic stresses.


Please note, this site uses COOKIES.

We use them to help you use our site. Remember that you can always change the settings for cookies in your browser settings. Learn more (Polish).